Besakih Temple is the center for Hindu religious ceremonies. In this temple is held the Ida Bhatara Turun Kabeh ceremony every year, Panca Bali Krama every ten years and Eka Dasa Rudra every one hundred years.
Implementation of the Ida Bhatara Turun Kabeh in 2012 falls on the full moon of the tenth month in Balinese calendar or Friday (Apr 6). Besakih Temple is a source of spiritual purity and safety for the Hindus. The mains building in Besakih Temple are the Padma Tiga shrines. They are located in the Penataran Agung Besakih. They consist of three units of Padmasana shrine standing on a single altar. Here is location of the Ida Bhatara Turun Kabeh ceremony.
According to various sources, the Padma Tiga shrines located in the Besakih Temple are used to venerate the Tri Purusha consisting of the Shiva, Sadha Shiva, and Parama Shiva (God Almighty). Padmasana is built on an altar or yoni. Padmasana is the shrine functioned as the abode of God Almighty. The word padmasana is derived from the word padma and asana. Padma means lotus and asana means a seat or throne.
God Almighty symbolically enthrones on the seat or Padmasana or lotus throne. It is a symbol of purity with eight leaves or astadala. Bali Dwipa or the Island of Bali is imagined by the ancient Hindu Rishi as Padmasana, the seating of Lord Shiva or God Almighty with the eight elements of omnipotence extending to the eight directions (astadala) of Bali Island along with the ruling deities. Lord Ishvara abides in the East in the Lempuyang Temple; Lord Brahma in the Andakasa Temple in the south; Lord Mahadeva in the west (Batukaru Temple); Lord Vishnu in the north (Batur Temple); Lord Maheshvara in the southeast (Goa Lawah Temple); Lord Rudra in the southwest (Uluwatu Temple); Lord Shankar in the northwest (Puncak Mangu Temple); Lord Sambhu in northeast (Besakih temple); Lord Shiva abides in the middle, on the altar of the Besakih Temple with the Tri Purusha namely the Parama Shiva, Sadha Shiva and Shiva.
The Tri Purusha is worshiped in the Padmasana Tiga of Besakih. It is the essence of padma bhuwana radiating the purity to all directions. While the construction of Besakih Temple and other sad kahyangan temples are based on the Padma Mandala conception, namely a lotus flower with multi-layered strands (Catur Lawa and Astadala). Besakih Temple is the essence of padma mandala or padma bhuwana. Gelap Temple, Kiduling Kerteg Temple, Ulun Kulkul Temple and Batumadeg Temple belong to catur lawa. While the Lempuyang Luhur, Goa Lawah, Andakasa, Uluwatu, Batukaru, Puncak Mangu and Batur belong to Astadala. Some religious leaders say that Besakih Temple is the head or soul of Bali. It is consistent with the location of Besakih Temple in the northeastern part of the Island of Bali.
Northeast is the direction of the rising sun with its rays as one of the forces of nature created by God becoming the source of life on earth. Besakih Temple is also the upstream of various temples in Bali.
In the Padma Tiga, God is worshiped as Lord Tri Purusha, the three manifestations of God as the soul of universe. Tri means three and Purusha means the soul. God as the Tri Purusha is the great soul of the three universes, namely Bhur Loka (lower realm), Bhuvah Loka (middle realm) and Svah Loka (upper realm). God as the ruler of the lower realm is called Shiva or Ishvara. As the soul of the middle realm, God is called Lord Sadha Shiva and as the great soul of the upper realm, God is called Lord Parama Shiva or Parameshvara.
The far right Padma shrine is used to venerate Lord Parama Shiva. This shrine is usually decorated with black clothes because the highest realm (Svah Loka) is unattainable by sunlight so it is black. Then, the padma shrine located in the middle is a symbol of worship to Lord Sadha Shiva embellished with white clothes. White represents the Akasha or sky. Meanwhile, the far left Padma shrine is the symbol of Lord Shiva worshipped as the soul Bhur Loka and embellished with red cloth. In this Bhur Loka, God put His creation consisting of stavira (plants), janggama (animals) and human beings. So, the Padma Tiga shrines are means of worshiping God as the soul of Tri Loka. On that account, in the conception of rwa-bhineda (basic dualism), the Besakih Temple is Purusha Temple, while Batur is Pradhana Temple.
Padmasana shrine located in the middle with yellow-white clothing is a symbol of God in a state of Saguna Brahman. This means that God has shown the transcendental characteristics to create a sacred and prosperous life. White symbolizes purity and yellow symbolizes prosperity. In the meantime, the red clothes on the far left padma shrine do not symbolize the Lord Brahma. The red depicts the God’s aspect as Utpati (generating), Sthitti (operating) and Pralina (destroying).
In this regard, the Lord Shiva manifests as Tri Murti (trinity). Meanwhile, in the complex of Besakih Temple, the manifestation of God as Lord Brahma is worshiped in the Kiduling Kerteg Temple, Lord Vishnu in the Batumadeg Temple and Lord Ishvara in the Gelap Temple.
In the level of Padma Bhuwana Temple, Lord Vishnu is worshiped in the Batur Temple in the north. Then, Lord Ishvara is worshiped in the Lempuyang Luhur Temple in the east and Lord Brahma in the Andakasa Temple in the south. Meanwhile, in the level of customary village, the trinity (Tri Murti) deities are worshiped in the Kahyangan Tiga Temple (Desa, Puseh and Dalem Temple). (lun)
Hindu communities in Bali have a unique way to express their gratitude to God Almighty.…